“Truth is so obscure in these times, and falsehood so established, that, unless we love the truth, we cannot know it.” This pronouncement, sounding remarkably up to date, was made by Blaise Pascal more than 350 years ago. Unless, he says, we love the truth. . . .
“Truth is the cry of all,” comments George Berkeley, “but the game of few.” Yet how can we disagree with Kierkegaard, when he remarks that a personality is only ripe when it has made the truth its own? “We have first raised a dust,” Berkeley observes, “and then complain we cannot see.” Of course we have, and of course we do. Truth after all, the full truth, the truth no matter what, is costly, being for a few the pearl of great price, but for just about everyone else – subconsciously to be sure – a great bugbear of incalculable inconvenience, shame and, perhaps, even horror.
“I am the way, the truth and the life,” says Jesus Christ in the Gospel, and will not the path we take to truth –should we decide to take it – affect the life of truth within us, so that as it is, so does it grow to be? “If you continue in my word, you are truly my disciples, and you will know the truth, and the truth will make you free.” The game of truth is a serious game for those who love truth, who would live by it, and who would have it live within them. “The pursuit of truth and beauty,” declares Einstein, “is a sphere of activity in which we are permitted to remain children all our lives.”
Permitted indeed, for who is more serious about play than children, and there being a game of truth – and of course a game of beauty also — surely we can see the life there, in the pursuit of either truth or beauty: whether in music where notes are the medium, in painting where color is the medium, or in philosophy where concepts are the medium. Unless we become like children, we cannot enter the kingdom of truth and beauty, the goodness of which is God. Truth feeds the soul, just as beauty feeds the soul when it is true, when it is the radiance of truth in goodness. “Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceeds from the mouth of God.” So must beauty be as truth in purest revelation, so must truth be as beauty in deepest conscience.
I am the bread of life. Truth will never fail to nourish those who continue in the living word of the Gospel. “All the choir of heaven and furniture of earth,” writes Berkeley, “— in a word, all those bodies which compose the frame of the world — have not any subsistence without a mind.” And what is the mind without reason, the natural order of truth? Or for that matter, what is mind without imagination, which, as C. S. Lewis points out, is the very organ of meaning of what reason uncovers for us as truth? And one of the feats of the imagination in partnership with reason through ages of biblical understanding is an approach seldom taken in these days of scholarly criticism or its fundamentalist opposition: allegory. Allegory, one of four traditional levels of interpretation of Holy Scripture through centuries of faithful, intelligent reading – the other three levels being the literal, the analogical, and the mystical – can be a gratifying way to deepen the heart’s understanding of scripture, a way of co-operation of head and heart:
After this Jesus went to the other side of the Sea of Galilee, also called the Sea of Tiberias. A large crowd kept following him, because they saw the signs that he was doing for the sick. Jesus went up the mountain and sat down there with his disciples. Now the Passover, the festival of the Jews, was near. When he looked up and saw a large crowd coming towards him, Jesus said to Philip, ‘Where are we to buy bread for these people to eat?’ He said this to test him, for he himself knew what he was going to do. Philip answered him, ‘Six months’ wages would not buy enough bread for each of them to get a little.’ One of his disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, said to him, ‘There is a boy here who has five barley loaves and two fish. But what are they among so many people?’ Jesus said, ‘Make the people sit down.’ Now there was a great deal of grass in the place; so they sat down, about five thousand in all. Then Jesus took the loaves, and when he had given thanks, he distributed them to those who were seated; so also the fish, as much as they wanted. When they were satisfied, he told his disciples, ‘Gather up the fragments left over, so that nothing may be lost.’ So they gathered them up, and from the fragments of the five barley loaves, left by those who had eaten, they filled twelve baskets. When the people saw the sign that he had done, they began to say, ‘This is indeed the prophet who is to come into the world.’
Now the following allegorical interpretation of John’s account of the feeding of the 5000 (6:5-14) is Martin Luther’s, as given in a sermon on a fourth Sunday in Lent (The Sermons of Martin Luther, Volume II, pp. 166-172, Baker Book House):
I. THE FEEDING OF THE FIVE THOUSAND.
I. In today’s Gospel Christ gives us another lesson in faith, that we should not be overanxious about our daily bread and our temporal existence, and stirs us up by means of a miracle; as though to say by his act what he says by his words in Matthew 6, 33: “Seek ye first the Kingdom of God, and his righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you.” For here we see, since the people followed Christ for the sake of God’s Word and the signs, and thus sought the Kingdom of God, he did not forsake them but richly fed them. He hereby also shows that, rather than those who seek the Kingdom of God should suffer need, the grass in the desert would become wheat, or a crumb of bread would be turned into a thousand loaves; or a morsel of bread would feed as many people and just as satisfactorily as a thousand loaves; in order that the words in Matthew 4, 4 might stand firm, that “Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.” And to confirm these words Christ is the first to be concerned about the people, as to what they should eat, and asks Philip, before they complain or ask him; so that we may indeed let him care for us, remembering that he cares more and sooner for us than we do for ourselves.
2. Secondly, he gives an example of great love, and he does this in many ways. First, in that he lets not only the pious, Who followed him because of the signs and the Word, enjoy the food; but also the slaves of appetite, who only eat and drink, and seek in him temporal honor; as follows later when they disputed with him at Capernaum about the food, and he said to them in Jn 6, 26: “Ye seek me, not because ye saw signs, but because ye ate of the loaves,” etc., also because they desired to make him king; thus here also he lets his sun shine on the evil and the good, Mt 5, 45. Secondly, in that he bears with the rudeness and weak faith of his disciples in such a friendly manner. For that he tests Philip, who thus comes with his reason, and Andrew speaks so childishly on the subject, all is done to bring to light the imperfections of the disciples, and on the contrary to set forth his love and dealings with them in a more beautiful and loving light, to encourage us to believe in him, and to give us an example to do likewise; as the members of our body and all God’s creatures in their relation to one another teach us. For these are full of love, so that one bears with the other, helps and preserves what God has created.
3. That he now takes the five loaves and gives thanks etc., teaches that nothing is too small and insignificant for him to do for his followers, and he can indeed so bless their pittance that they have an abundance, whereas even the rich have not enough with all their riches; as Ps 34, 11 says: “They that seek Jehovah shall not want any good thing; but the rich must suffer hunger.” And Mary in her song of praise says: “The hungry he hath filled with good things; and the rich he hath sent empty away.” Lk 1, 53.
4. Again, that he tells them so faithfully to gather up the fragments, teaches us to be frugal and to preserve and use his gifts, in order that we may not tempt God. For just as it is God’s will that we should believe when we have nothing and be assured that he will provide; so he does not desire to be tempted, nor to allow the blessings be has bestowed to be despised, or lie unused and spoil, while we expect other blessings from heaven by means of miracles. Whatever he gives, we should receive and use, and what he does not give, we should believe and expect he will bestow.
II. THE ALLEGORICAL INTERPRETATION.
5. That Christ by the miraculous feeding of the five thousand has encouraged us: to partake of a spiritual food, and taught that we should seek and expect from him nourishment for the soul, is clearly proved by the whole sixth chapter of John, in which he calls himself the bread from heaven and the true food, and says: “Verily, verily, I say unto you, ye seek me, not because ye saw signs, but because ye ate of the loaves, and were filled. Work not for the food which perisheth, but for the food which abideth unto eternal life, which the Son of man shall give unto you.” Jn 6, 26-27. In harmony with these words we will explain also this evangelical history in its spiritual meaning and significance.
6. First, there was much hay or grass in the place. The Evangelist could not fail to mention that, although it appears to be unnecessary; however it signifies the Jewish people, who flourished and blossomed like the grass through their outward holiness, wisdom, honor, riches etc., as Isaiah 40, 6-7, says: “All flesh is grass, and all the goodliness thereof is as the flower of the field. The grass withereth, the flower fadeth, because the breath of Jehovah bloweth upon it; surely the people is grass.” From the Jewish people the Word of God went forth and the true food was given to us; for salvation is of the Jews, Jn 4, 22. Now, as grass is not food for man, but for cattle; so is all the holiness of the outward Jewish righteousness nothing but food for animals, for fleshly hearts, who know and possess nothing of the Spirit.
7. The very same is taught by the people sitting on the grass; for the true saints despise outward holiness, as Paul does in Phil 3, 8, in that he counted his former righteousness to be filth and even a hindrance. Only common and hungry people receive the Word of God and are nourished by it. For here you see that neither Caiaphas nor Annas, neither the Pharisees nor the Scribes follow Christ and see Christ’s signs; but they disregard them, they are grass and feed on grass. This miracle was also performed near the festive time of the Jewish Passover; for the true Easter festival, when Christ should be offered as a sacrifice, was near, when he began to feed them with the Word of God.
8. The five loaves signify the outward, natural word formed by the voice and understood by man’s senses; for the number five signifies outward things pertaining to the five senses of man by which he lives; as also the five and five virgins illustrate in Mt 25, 1. These loaves are in the basket, that is, locked up in the Scriptures. And a lad carries them, that means the servant class and the priesthood among the Jews, who possessed the sayings of God, which were placed in their charge and entrusted to them, Rom 3, 2, although they did not enjoy them. But that Christ took these into his own hands, and they were thereby blessed and increased, signifies that by Christ’s works and deeds, and not by our deeds or reason, are the Scriptures explained, rightly understood and preached. This he gives to his disciples, and the disciples to the people. For Christ takes the Word out of the Scriptures; so all teachers receive it from Christ and give it to the people, by which is confirmed what Matthew 23, 10 says: “For one is your master, even the Christ,” who sits in heaven, and he teaches all only through the mouth and the word of preachers by his Spirit, that is, against false teachers, who, teach their own wisdom.
9. The two fishes are the example and witness of the patriarchs and prophets, who are also in the basket; for by them the Apostles confirm and strengthen their doctrine and the believers like St. Paul does in Rom 4, 2-6, where he cites Abraham and David etc. But there are two, because the examples of the saints are full of love, which cannot be alone, as faith can, but must go out in exercise to its neighbor. Furthermore the fishes were prepared and cooked; for such examples are indeed put to death by many sufferings and martyrdoms, so that we find nothing carnal in them, and they comfort none by a false faith in his own works, but always point to faith and put to death works and their assurance.
10. The twelve baskets of fragments are all the writings and books the Apostles and Evangelists bequeathed to us; therefore they are twelve, like the Apostles, and these books are nothing but that which remains from and has been developed out of the Old Testament. The fishes are also signified by the number five (Moses’ books); as John 21, 25 says: “Even the world itself would not contain the books that should be written” concerning Christ, all which nevertheless was written and proclaimed before in the Old Testament concerning Christ.
11. That Philip gives counsel as how to feed the people with his few shillings, and yet doubts, signifies human teachers who would gladly aid the soul with their teachings; but their conscience feels it helps nothing. For the discussion Christ here holds with his disciples takes place in order that we may see and understand that it is naturally impossible to feed so many people through our own counsel, and that this sign might be the more public. Thus he lets us also disgrace ourselves and labor with human doctrines, that we may see and understand how necessary and precious God’s Word is and how doctrines do not help the least without God’s Word.
12. That Andrew pointed out the lad and the loaves, and yet doubted still more than Philip, signifies the teachers who wish to make the people pious and to quiet them with God’s laws; but their conscience has no satisfaction or peace in them; but only becomes continually worse, until Christ comes with his Word of grace. He is the one, and he alone, who makes satisfaction, delivers from sin and death, gives peace and fulness of joy, and does it all of his own free will, gratuitously, against and above all hope and presumption, that we may know that the Gospel is devised and bestowed, not through our own merit, but out of pure grace.
13. Finally, you see in this Gospel that Christ, though he held Gospel poverty in the highest esteem and was not anxious about the morrow, as he teaches in Matthew 6, 34, had still some provisions, as the two hundred shillings, the five loaves and the two fishes; in order that we may learn how such poverty and freedom from care consist not in having nothing at all, as the barefooted fanatics and monks profess, and yet they themselves do not hold to it; but it consists in a free heart and a poor spirit. For even Abraham and Isaac had great possessions, and yet they lived without worry and in poverty, like the best Christians do.
Of course the allegorical approach to interpretation of the bible, being an imaginative interpretation, is not subject to the strict demands of biblical scholarship in its standard of truth. The truth here is found in another realm, on another level. Yet truth nonetheless it can be to the one that takes it in with open mind and heart. Luther, of course, despite the reformation he was instigating, the justification-by-faith-alone doctrine he was promulgating, and the monks and friars he was disparaging, stood squarely within the (then) fifteen centuries-old Catholic tradition in bringing to scripture an allegorical interpretation, i.e., of permeating Christianity with thinking (a practice as old as the Gospel of John itself), allegory being but one means of accomplishing this. In our day, allegory as a means of interpretation has come into a kind of metamorphosis with the “spiritual-scientific” approach of Rudolf Steiner, as any study of his lectures on the gospels will reveal. For many, this spiritual approach to hidden truth – and to that monument of hidden truth the Bible – will go a long way to restore faith in Holy Scripture, especially so if (actually, only if) Steiner’s advice is heeded, which is that the spiritual-scientific mode of thinking should find its way into the heart.
Saint Gregory the Great (c. 540 – March 12, 604), whose feast it is today, writes, “There are nine orders of angels, to wit, angels, archangels, virtues, powers, principalities, dominations, thrones, cherubim, and seraphim.” This is really the same as to say that there are nine levels of consciousness above the human. Even so, we have our thinking, and it is by way of permeating Christianity with our thinking – beginning of course with a good effort at literal understanding – that we can rediscover the deeper truths of Holy Scripture, helping us to enter a higher level of consciousness. As Saint Gregory says, “The seed of the word readily germinates when the loving-kindness of the preacher waters it in the hearer’s breast.” The “preacher” in this case being the heart-felt thinking, conceived by the Holy Spirit, that we ourselves bring to birth, because, purely and simply, we love the truth.
Pax et Bonum,